Why is time regarded as an extra dimension if it is just an effect (or property/attribute) of 3-dimensional space?

Time isn’t an effect, property or attribute of ‘3-dimensional space’. They are 2 distinct, separate dimensions.

Time is the dimension of change (hence ‘rate’…eg miles per hour…the per hour bit is time calibrating change.)

Space (in this context) is the dimension of (relative) position (hence xyz-axis). In fact, Space is the dimension of static position (because, by definition, it excludes Time).

Merge the dimension of static relative position (Space) with the dimension of change, and hey presto you get Spacetime, the dimension of changing position…aka Motion.

That makes Time a pretty important dimension in its own right. Change is what drives the universe, after all.

I am going to link below to an answer I just posted to a similar question.

I hope this helps…

https://qr.ae/pG60xJ

https://qr.ae/pG603s

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